I can provide an answer for the first part of the question: No new water diversions out of the Great Lakes region are allowed.
Great Lakes water agreement
The 2005 Great Lakes–Saint Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement prohibits diversion of water from the Great Lakes outside of the Great Lakes Basin:
The compact is an agreement between the U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania; and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Québec.
There are only three exceptions to the restriction on diversions:
- Communities that straddle the Basin divide
- Intra-Basin transfers
- Communities in counties that straddle the Basin divide
Since 2005, only one exception has been approved, for Waukesha, a Wisconsin city straddling the basin whose own water supply was found to have high radium levels. As part of the exception, Waukesha has to return the water back to Lake Michigan after it has been treated, so that there is no net loss.
Existing Chicago River diversion
One diversion out of the Great Lakes basin already existed prior to the agreement (source):
The Chicago diversion from Lake Michigan into the Mississippi River system is the only major diversion out of the Great Lakes Basin.
In the 1880s, the flow of the Chicago River was reversed to address problems with the sewer system, carrying water out of Lake Michigan and eventually to the Mississippi River. Other states complained about this, concerned that it would lower the lake level, and eventually a 1967 Supreme Court Case capped the outflow at a daily average of 3,200 cubic feet per second (about 91,000 L) (source).
As a condition for entering the compact while maintaining the Chicago River diversion, Illinois is not allowed to request any additional diversions.