"No" is a pretty safe answer in general to the question "Can a behaviour be polluting while still being sustainable?", just from any reasonable definitions of "pollution" and "sustainable".
But let's look at some corner cases.
For example, broadly speaking, CO2 is both a local and a global pollutant.
If anthropogenic CO2 emissions were only 1-2% of what they are now, and not happening within urban areas, then natural carbon sinks could absorb those emissions sustainably, as long as those sinks are allowed to grow, rather than being shrunk.
And scientists such as Columbia University's Klaus Lackner have developed means of extracting atmospheric CO2, and we have the chemistry to turn CO2 into other chemicals, including methane. So there are round trips which would involve CO2 emissions, but which could be sustainable. Obviously the round trip would be a net consumer of energy, but the price of energy differs by time, place and form, so this can still be economically viable.
So, one way to look at the relationship between pollution and sustainability is this:
if there are procedures in place to reverse the pollution; and / or if the rate of release of pollutants is less than the sink rate of the environment, and if the pollutants' pathways from source to sink does not cause collateral harm on the way, then it could be sustainable. Otherwise, it is unsustainable.