As soon as you plant a forest it starts to decay. Initially the growth rate is faster than the decay rate. At some point it reaches equilibrium.
To maximize carbon capture you want to plant something that adds biomass quickly. To keep it sequestered, you need long life.
Your best strategy is to plant fast growth trees for your area, coupled with shade tolerant long lived trees to take over. You are createing your own plant succession.
Possible candidates: (I'm speaking from experience mostly in USDA zone 3, but this is pretty applicable to zone 5. Once you get warmer than that you need to check out your hardy plants.
Fast growth: the entire poplar family grows at some 3-6 feet a year depending on water, and length of growing season. (I get about 3.5 feet per year with Hill Poplar unirrigated, in central Alberta with about 120 frost free days per year.) There are some tree form willows that do well.
On the conifer side, siberian larch and eastern white pine do well.
For your second layer, look at the maples. Most are moderately shade tolerant. Red maple, and sugar maple are fairly long lived and get quite large. If your climate has the right temperature regime in spring, the maples may have good value as a source of sap for making maple syrup.
If white pine grows there, it can become part of your long range plan. Where I grew up in northern Idaho 400 year old 200 foot high pines while not common, weren't exactly rare.