Moss takes a while to grow, but when it fills in it makes a beautiful interior or exterior wall covering. If the concrete has moisture that will actually help the moss grow without need of misting like you would on a dry surface.
Check out these pictures to get some ideas.
Here is a guide to growing moss. It focuses more on lawns, but the ideas are just as applicable to walls and ceilings.
If molds are an issue grow lichen first before the moss. Lichens are a multi-species organism composed of a moss like plant and a fungi. The fungal aspect of the Lichen will compete against other fungi (like black mold). If mold is already present you may need to sterilize the concrete somehow (e.g. Bleach or Rubbing Alcohol).
If moss isn't your thing, consider striping the current paint with a sand blaster, then mixing your choice of latex paint with an acrylic cement admixture and some portland cement and water to make a thin slurry that can be painted or troweled onto the ceiling. That will at least last much longer than a normal paint job.
Another option, is like THelper says in his comment to this answer, you might be better off finding out why the concrete gets wet and fixing that problem instead.