Vehicles and Factories produce air-pollution like Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Sulfur Dioxide (SO2).
Plants use Fertilizer with those same compounds (NO2 & SO2)
So, is there any method to capture air pollutants and recycle them as fertilizer?
Please state your source that fertilizer contain NO2 and SO2. Those are gases.
Remove NO2 and SO2 is required by emission laws. Scrubbers have been used for this since the 40's.
Fertilizer will contain solid forms of N and S. For example Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3).
Convert the gas to a solid form would be expensive.
Just found a patent for this: https://www.google.com/patents/US20070154374
Method for removing sulfur dioxide and other acid gases, mercury, and nitrogen oxides from a gas stream with the optional production of ammonia based fertilizers
You can use scrubbers to remove NO2 (or better NOX) and SO2 from exhaust gas emissions.
Scrubbers are used in large industrial facilities, power plants, and large ships to clean-up the exhaust gas emissions -- mainly in order to comply with emission thresholds. They are not applied in small-scale combustion facilities such as cars or residential heating facilities. There are different types of scrubbers.
However, scrubbers do not only remove NOX and SO2 from exhaust gas but also other air pollutants such as organic pollutants or heavy metals (as briefly described in the section 'Mercury Removal' of the Wikipedia article on scrubbers). Therefore, a recycling of scrubber water (when wet scrubbers are used) in general seems to be quite complex. However, in some applications it might be possible.
Particularly coal but also crude oil contains heavy metals, which are released during the combustion process. Natural gas / methane, in contrast, is quite pure. Therefore, exhaust gas emissions of methane combustion are cleaner with respect to heavy metals. Also in some industrial (non-combustion) applications, the removed air pollutants might be recycled.
But, using a scrubber is energy intensitive. Recycling the scrubber-output is energy intensitive. Therefore, it might not be reasonable from as sustainability-point-of-view to do that.