What is the typical embodied energy of a solar photovoltaic panel, in terms of nominal power output or panel area? The ideal answer would be in kWh/WP, but kWh/m2 would also be acceptable.
I understand there is probably a range of answers to this question, so here are some simplifying assumptions:
- If the manufacturing process is more efficient for larger panels, then the answer for large panels (best case scenario) is preferred.
- If the manufacturing process has become more efficient over time, then an answer for the most modern and efficient process (best case scenario) is prefered.
- If different manufacture technologies (monocrystal, polycrystal, thin film) have different amounts of embodied energy, then the lowest answer (best case scenario) is preferred.