I am not an expert on mining, but I do know my way on fossil fuel extraction. Getting oil from the earth and making it into fuel is not as easy as it sounds, and really the process is way more contaminant than extracting metals from the ground.
To make it more clear I can try to explain it in parallel, in both you extract the resource from the ground, depending on the type of mine the mineral (Lithium) can be quite contaminant but given humanity has done this for thousands of years (mining not for lithium but for more things) there are many ways to extract minerals in which there is minimum contamination of water and of other materials, also extraction of Lithium is quite simple compared to other minerals given that Lithium is highly reactive.
Oil in the other hand does not come as a liquid, it is more like goo that is stuck to the ground and you extract a flow of mud (some are liquid but most of oils extracted are mud) that is highly pressurized in a cave underground, you drill it and up comes the fossil mineral. Oil then is bottled up and sent to the first of many steps, first you have to get rid of water on the oil (even if extracted on land oil has water). Then you need to extract the sour gases, H2S, CO2, CS2 among others, most of which are highly toxic. When we are down to this process compared to Lithium you already have the metal extracted ready to be melted, but here this is just the start.
Oil now has many beautiful long molecules that can be used for medicines, plastics, ceramics, even food (seriously) but who needs that? We need fuel! So it goes into an equipment called cracker, which breaks these wonders of science down to not-so-long not-so-short molecules that are better suited to be burned.
After being cracked it is then distilled in not one but usually two or more distillation towers to be made into several types of fuel, diesel, kerosene, gasoline, jet fuel, paraphine and even asphalt (waste product).
Those fuels are still not good for the market, they need to be further cleaned from sour gases (they are a pain to get rid of believe me).
All of these processes require literal tons of fuel to power the process itself, tons of carbon emissions at each second because a chemical refining plant works on steady-state meaning it never stops for a single second, maybe for an emergency.
Natural gas is something to consider, it naturally builds up at the top of the oil deposit, and of course you get some of it when extracting oil, since natural gas is cheap and there is little profit to be made there it is burned, thus the big fire plume on top of oil rigs.
Nowadays the process is less wasteful but Chemical Engineers are moving away from the burning of fuels for two simple reasons;
- It literally kills the planet, the process to get them and the burning too.
- You destroy things that are much more valuable, molecules that can make life so much easier and even sustainable, biodegradable plastics we have yet to discover, medicines to cure illnesses, all of that destroyed just because we want to power our car.
Source? I am a chemical engineer, I work doing simulations for oil companies, even those companies are moving away from oil burning and towards use of electricity as fuel. Yes not all of them but I got into this field for this particular reason, the best way to understand a problem is from the inside, electric cars are not a final solution but they are indeed the next step. If you can avoid cars altogether and use public transportation.