The greatest trend in energy is electrification. I suspect this trend will dominate heat production, so heat would be produced using heat pumps. Their source can be industrial waste heat, datacenter heat, geothermal heat or even seawater heat.
Alternatives would be small nuclear reactors that produce only heat at low pressure and not steam at high pressure ...
Are there studies that evaluate which CO2 price would actually lead to significant changes in consumption patterns?
Such a study would be of very little interest.
The change will not happen in consumption patterns but in production patterns.
For example, you pay today perhaps 30 EUR / MWh of natural gas with transportation but without CO2 prices.
NEL has a ...