8

A ton of coal is roughly 240 kWh of electricity. At present, the coal mine north of me charges the local power company something like $1.90 /ton for coal. So the fuel cost is about a cent per kWh. The wholesale price of electricty is about $.03/kWh. The retail price of that power is $.15/kWh. A $24/ton carbon tax would be 10 cents/kWH. That's enough to ...


8

Ecologists refer to this as 'gross productivity' and define it to be dry weight plant matter per area per year. In temperate climates this is likely to be a grass. Switchgrass has been proposed as a bio feedstock, both because it's highly productive, and the plant pulls most of the necessary trace nutrients back into the roots in fall. Poplar and willow ...


6

(Draft answer till I get around to find some figures) There's a few ways I see to go about this: Running a Haber Bosch process or similiar with a non-fossile source for energy and H2, or finding other N sources. There's principally two routes, N fixing plants in crop rotation + organic fertilizer and reusing N-rich wastes and wastewater. The key difference ...


5

I think you're up against two three at least four separate problems: The scale: rallying 1M people to plant 16k trees apiece over 20 years is no way a "guerrilla" operation; it's a mass movement. It won't be covert: everyone will know about it, and landowners will probably object more or less strenuously. The distribution: if you have anywhere near 1M ...


5

If you have a basement you can install a ground loop. It may not be available in your area, but "remote dive" boring equipment comes small enough now that it can be brought in through your front door. Obviously groundwater and underground utilities are concerns, but it's still possible. I don't think I'll ever understand people's carbon fixation, but if ...


5

One way to look at it to compare like with like is to look at the photosynthetic efficiency since carbon is fixed through photosynthesis. By this measure, sugar cane comes on top, converting about 8% of the incomming sunlight energy into stored carbon energy.


4

No, and no. Current production costs of biochar are in the hundreds of dollars per tonne. (It shouldn't be that expensive.) By comparison the mining costs for coal at my neighbor, the coal mine, run about 90 cents (canadian) per ton. It will be a while. General paper about biochar with nominal $200/ton wholesale price from a unit that processes 2000 ...


4

The best source of information I could find was this: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/iceland/energy-use-kg-of-oil-equivalent-per-capita-wb-data.html It looks like about 80% of energy in Iceland comes from alternative sources (primarily geothermal). However according to http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/ene_oil_con_percap-energy-oil-consumption-per-capita ...


4

The glib answer is to use less energy. The best way of doing that is fixing the fabric of the house - massively increasing insulation, massively decreasing air permeability (and as a result fitting a ventilation system). There is no technical-wizardry answer. The simplest solution is best (but unfortunately outrageously expensive).


4

Given that you have natural gas heat I have a hard time imagining that there is a lot you can do there. There are likely some additional constraints given the historical value of the house. I think in many cases it is more important to preserve historical character than to try to fully decarbonize but that's at least partly a personal preference. Here are ...


3

Products and processes that provide a benefit while consuming resource(s) at a rate less than those resources are produced are sustainable. Those that consume any resources at a rate that higher than that resources rate of production, but lesser than in common practice are "more sustainable". Those resources that are non-renewable, or renew at very low ...


3

Based on the question as currently worded, I believe you're concerned about fraudulent and 'anyway' offsets - paying money for a business to do what they would have done anyway. For example, if a company knew it was going to install solar panels on a roof that they were already going to install solar on because of tax incentives, you wouldn't want to give ...


3

THelper did the heavy lifting, but I did some additional digging and found some more info. The official UN closing press release from the climate action summit includes this paragraph: 65 countries and major sub-national economies such as California committed to cut greenhouse gas emissions to net zero by 2050, while 70 countries announced ...


3

Since grass and switchgrass already been mentioned; Hemp and Paulownia tree may be the alternative answer. They are among the fastest growing plants. For hemp, one unit land area of hemp(s) can produces as much cellulose as 4 unit land area of trees.


2

The favored anode catalyst in a hydrogen fuel cell is platinum(1) or another platinum-group element (e.g. palladium). The catalyst is required in small quantities for an individual fuel cell but of course this demand scales up linearly with the number of fuel cells you want to produce. There is ongoing research into development of alternative anode ...


2

I have trouble finding that list as well. I know that in the past 19 countries already pledged to be carbon neutral by 2050 (see https://www.carbon-neutrality.global/members/). I did also find this UN Climate Action Summit summary page where it says: Five new countries (Austria, Chile, Italy, Japan, Timor-Leste) joined the Carbon Neutrality Coalition ...


2

National Grid supplies the energy for the UK, and also manages the high voltage power transmission system. Each year, they prepare a Future Energy Scenarios report looking at energy needs across the UK and the different alternatives for how those needs can be met. The most recent FES was published in July 2018, and is the source for the figures and quotes ...


2

Almost all of the well-known mitigation tools yield fast benefits. PV's payback is around a year. Onshore wind around 3 months, offshore wind around 9 months. The payback time on each of these three depends on the weather regime where it's located. Biomass when done well less has a payback of less than a year. Most energy efficiency measures take less than ...


2

If you are going to use wood gas to run a generator, don't bother removing the CO. Burn it. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X3KipK49v7g is a vid on making a woodgas powered truck. That said: Consider getting a manual transfer switch, and a gas or diesel powered generator. While the power may have been off for 10 days this time, I found in our (shorter) ...


2

This master's thesis by Dahiru Rufai Ahmed at the university of Oulu provides a comprehensive background into the removal of CO2 from wood gas. On pages 36-37 it mentions the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction as a method of adjusting the hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture or removing CO entirely to get pure H2. "The WGS reaction is an exothermic reaction (∆Hr ...


2

I'm going to focus on the potential for enhanced oil recovery, permanent sequestration and government support for active projects. Carbon capture technology is a whole other beast. Projects Currently Underway sequestration.mit.edu has a great database of active and cancelled CCS projects in the US. I was surprised how many projects are on the burner now. ...


1

Note: the plants need nitrogen (for protein synthesis), not necessarily ammonia. Ammonia however is only one source of nitrogen. So I'm using the general term nitrogen below: In practice this has already been done through various methods: no-till: crop leftovers (e.g. stalks and husks from maize) are left on the field. Plowing is minimized or abandoned ...


1

I wanted to comment but since i can't... Are you talking about the energy generation to produce fertilizer ? Then of course you can go non-fossil sources...you can use the sun the wind the water i think that if it is a closed environment you can even use the methane you generate to generate your own power But what you should ask yourself is do you really ...


1

Steel alloys are primarily iron and between 0.002% and 2% carbon. The later is called high carbon steel and is used for heat treated parts. Sometimes other elements are added for strength or other properties, such as silicon and manganese for spring steel or chromium for harder steels. Replacing carbon with silicon, seeing as the two elements are in the ...


1

Magnesium Oxide based cements are interesting. Here are the downsides when compared to portland cement: They cure extremely fast so transporting pre-mixed cement doesn't work out. Here are all of the upsides when compared to portland cement: They are produced at a lower temperature and release less CO2 during the process than when compared to portland ...


1

I don't know how sound it is, but I have heard the argument that carbonisation takes us further from sustainability, because a high percentage of CO2 means that some of that CO2 gets absorbed into bodies of water (e.g. lakes), whereby the acidity of the water increases and microorganisms die, leaving the lake lifeless. A lifeless lake is quick to "erode" or ...


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