9

In Ireland, electricity is equally likely to be from renewable sources during the day as during the night ENTSO-E, the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity, provides a transparency platform where you can see the hourly actual generation per production type for Ireland: It's hard to pick out a trend just by looking at a day ...


7

The optimal temperature for a lithium-ion car battery is 20-25°C. When it's cold the battery can store less energy, so the range will go down. Additionally in winter people turn on the car's heater. In a fossil-fuel powered car this means that heat generated by the engine is diverted to the inside of the car. The engine of an electric car however does not ...


7

Operation You can use AFLEET, the Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation tool, from Argonne National Laboratory, to quickly do this analysis. Using the US average electricity mix, annual mileage of 12,400 (20,000 km) and plugging in 141 mpgE for the BEV (Tesla) and 45 mpg for the HEV (Prius), here's the GHG emissions results:...


5

You would need an EV that supports bi-directional loading, so that means one that uses the CHAdeMO charging system of Nissan and Mitsubishi. The CCS charging system that's popular in Europe and the US will not support bi-directional charging until 2025. According to this Wired article you also need: a switch to temporarily switch your house off the grid an ...


5

In terms of energy for movement, the electric car is more sustainable. There are two main resons for that. Firstly, when hydrocarbons are burnt to provide movement, local pollution is released: NOx, particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide. And secondly, it's much easier to clean electricity, than to clean hydrocarbons. That's because the clean ...


4

short answer: yes, it's better than driving a fossil-fuel car. Long answer: it may seem to make less sense if you only consider a very small range of impacts, where all of the costs are visible, but only some of the benefits. Only when you zoom out to the long-term system level do you capture all of the benefits. And there are even better alternatives. ...


4

Li-Ion batteries are worth recycling just for the lithium in them. This material can be re-refined, and made into new batteries. In this use they should show similar cost savings to recycled vs new aluminum. There is also the prospect of repurposing a worn battery for stationary use. E.g. It stores 30 kWh in your car for 3 years, then stores 10 kWh in ...


4

Taking a single semitrailer as the load you have approximately 12.5m long by 2.5m wide of top surface, or 31.25m². With 20% efficient panels you might get as much as 6kW from the semitrailer, or 6kWh every 100km/60 miles on the highway (which is also where good solar access is most likely). It's tricky to find energy consumption figures for heavy electric ...


4

By order of magnitude your approximation is reasonable. I compared it to a 2021 analysis performed by Mark Jacobson as part of his 100% Wind, Water, and Solar (WWS) All-Sector Energy Roadmaps for Countries, States, Cities, and Towns. The results for Italy are available here (pdf). For a complete electrification of the transport sector by 2050, Table 2 shows ...


3

To make a calculation you would need to know the fuel consumption of the current diesel buses and the efficiency of the electric buses that would replace them. That information is probably not available to you, so for my answer I will do a best guess based on data from other studies: This Finnish study done in 2015 claims that "electric buses have potential ...


3

A self-contained solar-powered car is not viable. There simply isn't enough area for the solar panels. Take a Honda Civic as an example: it's got about eight square meters of top surface that solar panels could be installed on, for a peak theoretical generation of 8 kW. That same Honda Civic has a 92-kW engine, meaning that for each second of maximum ...


3

Yes there is, but unfortunately the only calculator I know, which allows determining both the climate impact and the total cost of ownership at the same time, is only available in the Finnish language. There are few options. You could try using it in Finnish by typing the unknown words to Google Translate to see what they mean if not self-evident immediately....


2

The answer to this depends on your assumed alternative. Electric vehicles are better than some traditional gas-fueled cars, but hybrids can have an even larger footprint than efficient combustion engines. But, what if we broaden the possible alternatives? A car in a car-share is likely to be more eco-friendly than otherwise, no matter the fuel source. An ...


2

Battery recycling today is handled by 3rd parties. This leads to issues of economic value on materials extracted since they must cover a large variety of battery types and cannot specialize on any one. Plus, the materials extracted from these recycled batteries that do not represent a 1-to-1 demand for replacement. So we have room for innovation here still. ...


2

It appears that currently (late December 2020), lithium from batteries is not recycled, because it is only worth 6 euro per kg (9 USD per kg). The only metals recovered from Li batteries are the valuable ones such as cobalt, which has a current LME price of 32 USD per kg.


2

I've gone through the same dilemma recently, and what made my mind up was the relatively cheap cost of offsetting my emissions from driving - around US$100 for a whole year's worth or 15,000 miles. Of course the drawbacks of carbon offsetting are well known - you're not undoing the damage that you've caused, and you're still burning a non-renewable resource ...


2

National Grid supplies the energy for the UK, and also manages the high voltage power transmission system. Each year, they prepare a Future Energy Scenarios report looking at energy needs across the UK and the different alternatives for how those needs can be met. The most recent FES was published in July 2018, and is the source for the figures and quotes ...


2

Since providing my older answer to this question, and since considering electric scooters, I have actually purchased an electric bike and have to not update my old answer but provide a new much better answer with completely different perspective. I used to dismiss electric bikes based on three problems: Bikes are low-speed high-torque devices whereas ...


2

An electric scooter would be ideal. Bicycles suffer from a peculiar characteristic of humans, namely that they produce power at a ridiculously low RPM. Power is force times speed. If speed is low, to get any useful power, you need huge amounts of force. The rotational equivalent is that power is torque times RPM, very similar to the linear equation. Let's ...


2

TL;DR: On-board components of wireless charging are actually 342 kg lighter than for the on-board components of plug-in charging, and allows the total battery size to be reduced (given ability to charge more frequently), allowing a battery mass reduction of 56 to 73% (1,979 to 2,577 kg). Component mass "Plug-in vs. wireless charging: Life cycle energy ...


2

Electric is as sustainable as its sources today. Smartville has 80% coal 20% large hydro (which lends itself to pumped storage). They are replacing 5% of their coal with renewables every year, increasing hydro backpumping capacity to allow pumped storage. They buy a bunch of electric buses/trains. Over the 32 year life of the trains and buses, their ...


2

It depends entirely on where your city is and where it gets its energy. The Electricity Map has live energy data for the Carbon Intensity of the electricity supply. Right now, the CO2 intensity of the electricity supply in grams of CO2 equivalent per kWh (gCO2eq/kWh) across the world is: 319 gCO2eq/kWh in the UK 28 gCO2eq/kWh in Norway 509 gCO2eq/kWh in ...


2

Why do most car manufacturers prefer electric batteries over hydrogen fuel cells? Because it's cheaper today, easy to pack the batteries under the floor, won't decrease the range much and won't have as fast acceleration. Apart from internal combustion engine cars burning hydrogen (which is very silly!), there is no pure hydrogen car today. All cars that are ...


2

This is quite a difficult question to answer with precision, because the impacts of mining depend a lot on how you do it. I can offer a few references which give a guide to the scale of the problem. There are many environmental concerns around the impact of Lithium mines on the environment and local communities (e.g. Reuters article on Salar de Atacama). ...


2

In my country, a typical motorist drives 15000 km/year. With state of the art electric cars that consume less than 0.2 kWh / km, and taking into account charging losses (that bring the total consumption from the grid to about 0.2 kWh/km), that's about 3000 kWh/year for a single passenger car. The world produces 25600 TWh/year of electricity and has about 1 ...


1

How do the impacts of mining lithium for one electric vehicle (EV) for it's lifetime compare to the impacts of extracting oil for one internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) for it's lifetime? There's one fundamental difference in the comparison that cannot be ignored. It is the impact of lithium recycling. Lithium as an atom cannot vanish so recycling is ...


1

There are a number of issues with hydrogen as an energy source. Firstly, there is a lack of infrastructure for hydrogen. The same can be said for battery charging, but slowly the number of battery charging stations is increasing. Nothing comparable has yet been done for hydrogen. Sourcing hydrogen is another problem. The main ideas for sourcing hydrogen is ...


1

Let's take a look at resistance! With 220 volts, the resistance energy waste is R*(30 A)2. Charging power is 220 V * 30 A. So, resistance waste divided by charging power is R * (30 A) / (220 V). With 110 volts, the fraction is R * (15 A) / (110 V). Because 15 divided by 110 is the same as 30 divided by 220, if you are using the same cable, the power ...


1

This totally depends on several things. Firstly, whether you pre-heat the vehicle. When plugged in, the vehicle may offer the possibility to pre-heat the interior and also the batteries. The interior heating reduces need to convert electricity to heat, and heating the batteries ensures they're at an optimal temperature. Secondly, whether the vehicle has a ...


1

In general, any two or three wheeler with a one-speed transmission and no manual clutch, or with a two-speed automatic transmission, and a ~50cc engine, is a moped. Some states don't require tag and insurance but most states require a driver's license. Also, the top speed of the moped is likely required to be 30 MPH. Note that only "most states" require a ...


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