We changed our privacy policy. Read more.
12

Fossil fuels contain less carbon-13 than carbon-12 (and no carbon-14), compared with the atmosphere, because the fuels derive from plants, which preferentially take up the more common carbon-12. The ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12 in the atmosphere and ocean surface waters is steadily falling, showing that more carbon-12 is entering the atmosphere. This ...


10

Conservation It is a fundamental law of physics that matter/mass/energy (all being, ultimately, the same thing) cannot be created or destroyed — they just change form. Under 'normal' conditions on Earth, any carbon atom that exists will continue to exist in perpetuity. It can and will form temporary bonds with other atoms to form distinct substances with ...


10

It is. However, the aerobic process of composting produces CO2, which is better than the anaerobic processes which result from burying compostable materials under layers of sand (preventing access to air), such that it creates methane. If the methane isn't captured (and in most landfills on earth, it still is not) then it causes climate change at a rate of ...


10

Solar thermal Given your limited criteria, solar thermal is in fact the ideal solution. I assume you say that "[solar] heating is so inefficient and the materials for solar panels introduce a can of worms sustainability", you refer to PhotoVoltaic panels, and not solar concentrators (mirrors and lens), which are silly cheap and sustainable. A large ...


9

Original answer (which had a long explanation): I proposed using degree days information to determine a baseload value for consumption of electricity and natural gas by region, and assume anything above this baseload was used for heating and cooling. This assumed that all seasonal changes in energy consumption were for heating and cooling only (so no change ...


9

From the first search I tried the first result says: According to the Second IMO GHG Study 2009, which is the most comprehensive and authoritative assessment of the level of GHG emitted by ships, international shipping was estimated to have emitted 870 million tonnes, or about 2.7% of the global man-made emissions of CO2 in 2007. Exhaust gases are the ...


7

The source of methane -- degradable organic carbon A 2006 report by the IPCC, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Volume 5 -- Waste, includes six different categories of landfilled waste which contain degradable organic carbon (DOC). Under anaerobic conditions, the DOC in these materials ultimately decomposes into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ...


6

Taking this video as a reference (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VYZKGlxutfw), a 20 lb (I take that as 10 kg) tank as in your burner lasts for 6 to 12 hours. So roughly 1 kg per hour. Assuming pure propane, which has 36 g/mol C and 8 g/mol H, every kg of propane contains 36/44 kg carbon. Under complete combustion this leads to 3 kg CO2, so that is your ...


6

Cars, buses, trains, and planes: comparison including infrastructure "Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States", a 2008 PhD dissertation, provides a comparison of various passenger vehicles, buses, commuter rail, and air travel. The results were summarized in an article in Environmental Research Letters, "...


6

The best list is probably wikipedia: Phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles There is a good review from the World Economic Forum here, dated 2017, which discusses some of the different approaches taken, which I've summarized here: UK: Ban production of petrol and diesel cars by 2040 (since changed to 2035); France: Ban sale of petrol and diesel cars by 2040; ...


5

Since raw materials scale according to size, every different panel/turbine will have a different answer. Different generators also have different maintenance costs, and lifespans. It's probably more meaningful to look at the total — lifecycle — cost of generation, not just a generator's initial construction cost. Carbon Brief have a 2017 article that ...


5

There is a saying in the sustainability world; "Reduce what you can, offset what you can't". If you burn fossil fuels, you are adding CO2 to the atmosphere. While it is possible to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels with an off-setting scheme, for example by planting new trees that take up CO2, burning fossil fuels still raises the amount of carbon that is ...


5

It depends on how you define "pollution". Cargo ships use some of the dirtiest fuels available: bunker fuel is basically what's left over after you refine all the good stuff out of crude oil. It's got all sorts of contaminants that something like gasoline or jet fuel doesn't have. On top of that, there are basically no regulations on emissions by ...


4

Time span. Most of the others are short term. CO2 ultimately depends on the rate biomass increases, and the speed it mixes into the deep ocean. Processes that take very long periods (thousands of years) Methane and NOx both have half lives in the decades range. So you see CO2e of 20 on a short period (couple of decades) down to 7 over a longer period (...


4

Change in capacity From 2004 to 2014, nuclear capacity did not change substantially: Change in generation However, the generation mix did change quite a bit (2014 nuclear data not available, so this chart ends in 2013): Summary of data Here's a summary of the data from 2011, along with the two years before and after: ...


4

As LShaver and Gerrit also mentioned in their comments, an exact answer would depend on the scope and method of calculation. You've already mentioned you are only interested in the search itself so I guess this means you don't want to include (part of) the footprint of Google's servers, the web-indexing process, or information storage about your query. But ...


4

It's a cosmetic issue. They're just using the language in an idiosyncratic way. What this particular document means by "GWP" on page 24 is simply the amount of CO2-equivalent emissions. Normally that would just be labelled kgCO2e or tCO2e for kilogrammes or tonnes of emissions respectively. Earlier in the same document, they'd used GWP to refer to carbon ...


4

Working from @Christoph's answer, here's what I get: Baseline heat emission is 264,000 BTU/hour (at full blast) 43,700 BTU in a kilogram of propane, so that's 6 kg/hour 6 kg of propane contains 6 x 36 / 44 = 4.9 kg of carbon 4.9 kg of carbon forms 4.9 x 44 / 12 = 18 kg of CO2 emitted by the fire pit per hour. Comparing to driving my own car: I drive a ...


3

You must read The Vegetarian Myth by Lierre Kieth: http://www.bookdepository.com/Vegetarian-Myth-Lierre-Keith/9781604860801 It's an excellent book, well cited and rich in information, presenting a factual viewpoint that my vegetarian-of-17-years self had to stand up and take notice of. Such a complicated topic, this book really opened my eyes. Needless to ...


3

Short answer: yes they do. It's completely natural that decomposing organic materials release CO2 and other greenhouse gases like methane and nitrogen oxides in some quantities. Both during compostation (which is usually done at normal atmosphere) and after putting it in the field. I highly doubt that the mentioned different procedures really lead to ...


3

tl;dr - Comparing Wyoming to, say, New York, the largest source of CO2 emissions in both states is the power sector. Wyoming uses mostly coal for power, which emits more CO2 per kWh generated than any other source, while NY uses a mix of mostly natural gas, with nuclear and hydro. Additionally, Wyoming exports power (increasing emissions counts) while NY ...


3

Extracting natural gas from pingos is likely not cost-effective. From the article cited in the question: A count of 7,000 pingos, alternative included, was likely an underestimate, in Romanovsky’s view. Across the entire Arctic permafrost, he estimated there may be as many as 100,000. But he could not say how many fell into which category — a ...


3

I looked into a similar question 2 years ago and came to the conclusion that it's impossible to answer this. The problem is that Amazon doesn't disclose any information about their carbon footprint. In fact in 2011 when an investor proposed that Amazon would participate in the Carbon Disclosure Project, the Amazon Board of Directors actively encouraged their ...


3

I don't have any data for your area but this research from the University of Oxford suggests leakage of 0.39Mt of methane annually from gas mains in the UK. (By way of comparison, agriculture produces 0.91Mt and decomposition of waste in landfill produces 0.46Mt). The most recent consumption figures I could find came from this page which suggest a total ...


2

Yes and no. The answer to the question you asked is yes. Biodegradation produces carbon dioxide and heat. The heat of biodegradation will be wasted. It makes much more sense to usefully harvest the heat stored in wood, and thus, not letting it biodegrade but rather burn it in power plants. However, you seem to think there are only two options: ...


2

The simple answer is that burning it would be roughly carbon neutral (it releases what it absorbed during growth) versus letting it decompose where it would be a carbon sink. Fossil fuels in the ground came from this vegetative carbon (+ millions of years and pressure). Burning renewable fuels is considered better than burning fossil fuels in the ground ...


2

"Obviously, it would be most ecologic to leave the coal where it is. But since this does not happen..." Actually, there are some who would like to buy the coal in the ground and leave it there as part of an environmentalist strategy, as explained in the 2014 paper "Buy Coal! A Case for Supply-Side Environmental Policy" by Bård Harstad. ...


2

I think you've misunderstood the CO2 issue. The problem with greenhouse gases, the way in which they present a threat to the very existence of human civilisations, is because we are adding C/CO2 to the carbon cycle. Growing food, eating food, metabolising food, exhaling CO2, is wholly within the carbon cycle: that is, it does not in itself add extra C/CO2 ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible