I'm not a demographer, but I attempted a first order approximation based on what I could find. World-O-Meter has a page with world age structure grouped into buckets of 5 years (eg. 20-24). I roughly calculated the total population over the next 100 years by assuming everyone survives until about age 100, so I just zero out one bucket every 5 years.
There is a saying in the sustainability world; "Reduce what you can, offset what you can't".
If you burn fossil fuels, you are adding CO2 to the atmosphere.
While it is possible to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels with an off-setting scheme, for example by planting new trees that take up CO2, burning fossil fuels still raises the amount of carbon that is ...
Yes. Account for as many externalities as possible.
Environmental Impact Cost
Calculate the offset costs for both options, so that they would both be equally Carbon Neutral.
The flight, as you've calculated is £100 + £10 = £110
The train is about 40Kg CO2 so £170 + £1 = £171
Perhaps we can assume that CO2 footprint ...
This is going to be unpopular, because I can remember things that mankind has forgotten. A long time ago people were saying that the shading from contrails might cause another ice age. Now the word contrails has been almost forgotten and a recent weather program was calling them something else entirely and intimating that they are natural. Contrails cause ...
tl;dr: Cruise emissions are lower than flight emissions even before switching to LNG, which might have unintended consequences due to leaks in the supply infrastructure.
Carnival Cruise Line published an independently verified sustainability performance summary in 2018. According to this report, their ships release 251 grams CO2e per ALB-...