To add some numbers to the discussion, I found
a white paper from Fujitsu about a desktop (2018)
production energy usage: 6.8 GJ or 450 kg CO2 equivalent
use phase energy usage: 9.2 GJ or 30 - 500 kg CO2 equivalent (Norwegian vs. German electricity mix)
usage scenario: 5 years
TODO: find out h per day or similar.
LCA of an Ecolabeled Notebook (2011)
"To compare purely the electricity usage ... Desktops are clearly worse for the environment in this respect." — That certainly used to be the case, and still often is, but only because people buy/build systems that are overpowered.
In 2019 it is possible to build a 'serious' desktop system that consumes very little power — provided you don't play the sort ...
Desktops hands down:
Aside from form factor, almost all of the components of a laptop could be plugged into a desktop and function as is. With that in mind however, laptop components are designed to be more power efficient and to be space saving whereas desktop components provide more 'power' for using the same amount of raw material; when ...
There are a couple of errors in your question.
Firstly regarding environmental damage in pre-industrial times, in the Middle East they ran out of trees over two thousand years ago and had to import timber. Easter Island had similar problems. Over-use of resources has existed since time immemorial, not just due to industrial revolution.
Secondly, regarding ...
Whether serious studies have occurred I do not know, but you surely can answer your question yourself without much effort.
For the effect of over-population of an area go visit a beef-stockyard, where the beeves are fattened before slaughter. Cattle practice a completely pre-technological lifestyle.
For the effects of technology, consider the currently ...
For pavement, how about chalk?
For grass, here are a couple of products based on crushed limestone: no affiliation, just the result of a google search. These only seem to come in white though.