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Several news outlets and popular science publications have reported on this subject in the last few years. Often, the focus is not specifically on vitamins, but on nutrients in general (i.e. "phytonutrients"). One study often cited is Donald R. Davis' publication from 2004 that showed that 6 out of 13 nutrients had declined (statistically significant) in ...


5

An organic ranch in Virginia would clear forest for pasture by first penning goats into the area for a year or so. The goats would clear out all of the underbrush while producing milk (turned into cheese) and meat. Timber could then be much more easily harvested using traditional techniques - companies would pay slightly higher rates to come in because there ...


5

I have an incomplete answer, but at least this is something to get the conversation started. At the bottom of your comments, you restate the question as "is organic any better because it costs more, meaning consumers buy less?" Throughout this sustainability Q&A forum, there is a misunderstanding that sustainability equates to the minimization of ...


4

Yes, there are many concerns regarding the impact of GMOs on the environment. First, let us understand what a GMO is. This is when someone alters the genetic makeup of an organism by inserting genes into its genome. Thus, compared to more traditional methods of plant breeding, which are more gradual, and limited to species that can breed together, GMOs ...


4

Research This is probably extremely variable depending on the specific crops you are talking about. I tried to gather information from various sources. I looked mostly at studies of subsistence farmers; I propose that the labor per unit area would be similar without any mechanized methods. Yield may be higher based on other factors like increased ...


4

Sustainability & Production: Production: Needs examples of well performing methods & techniques utilizing organic farming methods There are tons of examples all over the place how Organic farming methods not just give high production, but are also in long term better for the "soil quality" over decades. Chemical farming can and tends to destroy ...


4

Your question seems to be specifically limited to grain fed to livestock, even though a great deal of the feed grown for livestock is not grain, and most livestock are not fed, let alone fed grain. It's likely based on stories like this one saying "U.S. could feed 800 million people with grain that livestock eat, Cornell ecologist advises animal scientists". ...


3

To summarise @EnergyNumbers's response which applies for UK milk, I will quote a section from the report he linked: "Between 60 and 112 litres of milk produced for each kilo of soya meal fed to cows, 7.5 litres of milk produced from each kilo of soya beans turned into soya milk" The report points out that the UK has a better climate for grass (read rainy), ...


3

Industrialization and globalization don't really want to "do" anything. These are social descriptions to abstract the behavior and actions of people. The problem is that a capitalistic society tends to not allocate costs properly, especially environmental costs, without government regulation. Feedback loops that would ordinarily limit or constrain people and ...


3

Since asking the question I have been thinking about this quite a bit, and I believe the fundamental difference boils down to the balance between preventing and repairing negative externalities: cost[s] that [are] suffered by a third party as a result of an economic transaction. In a transaction, the producer and consumer are the first and second ...


3

Vertical Farming does already compete with horizontal farming. I read an article about a lettuce farm in Japan that was producing 10,000 head of lettuce a day. The research showed that the vertical farm not only used less water but it also produced more lettuce with less labour. Because LEDs have been designed specifically for this purpose by GE, the farm ...


3

Get the plastic itself analyzed. It is likely Polyethylene. PE itself is harmless -- chemically it is essentially a very long chain wax. If there were any solvents in it, by now they have leached into the soil (rueful grimace). In many jurisdictions using PE mulch is allowed in organic farming. Get a ruling from your local authority. Long exposure to ...


3

Given the uncertainties in many of your numbers, your answer is consistent with Nate Storey's. Your assumption of 303 lm/W for LEDs doesn't look plausible to me - that's very different to the sort of efficiencies I see on the market. Half that would be much more plausible. So no, your total1 calculation doesn't look right to me. And you do need to account ...


2

Google is your friend. Use it. search cold weather ducks http://thriftyhomesteader.com/2013/11/cold-ducks-keeping-ducks-in-winter.html The above is in the Olympic mountains at 1000 feet. Heavy snowfall. Lows in the teens (F) Khaki Campbells and Blue Swedish. http://wholefedhomestead.com/what-temperature-can-a-duck-survive/ Peking Ancona ducks. ...


2

Recently reported research carried out by Rocky De Nys of James Cook University, Australia, has found that a 2% seaweed feed supplement for cattle substantially reduces the methane production in cattle rumen, thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emission of cattle. I suggest that you use seaweed fed cows' milk to make your cheese. Popular article: Feeding ...


2

The simplest answer I could find comes from this 2019 New York Times interactive about food and climate change. Based on a serving with 50 grams of protein, the average greenhouse gas impact of beef is 17.7 kg CO2 and the average impact of cheese is 5.4 kg CO2. So to conclude: beef is worse than cheese for global warming. But be careful to note their caveats:...


1

Summary: either there is no link, or no one did any research on this. The latter doesn't seem likely given the amount of research there has been on grain protein content. Most likely the farmer meant 'use of herbicides' as this does have an effect on protein content. I don't have access to the full article, but in this abstract they say that the grain ...


1

Farmers wanting (or being forced) to avoid the use of pesticides have a wide variety of choices at their disposal. Most of them will in fact alter the quality of the crop, but most of the alternatives are often not known or considered. Switching to a different variety is obviously one of the easiest, but it also has a big effect on the final product. ...


1

I know you asked for a book, but until then, have you ever come across this youtube channel? Townsends has videos not only about recipes but also about different techniques of building stuff around the house, in the good old 18th century way. I found them when I was watching videos about baking bread, they have a nice one about how they make an oven out of ...


1

If your local laws allow you to keep bees on your property, then you can keep bees, end of discussion. Your neighbor's horses don't come into consideration. If you don't want your beekeeping to affect your neighbors or their horses, keep this in mind. Bees routinely travel up to 3.2km (or even further) in search of food and water. If your neighbor's field ...


1

I would say it could. This question has been here for quite long, so I'll try to answer it with my basic understanding of organic vs. "conventional" farming. Say Organic farming produces 25% less From this CNN article, Organic yields are 25% lower. Let's by it as it is, even if we should not trust anything we read on the Internet. But the worl ...


1

There is an extensive study by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization: Tackling climate change through livestock. Their key facts and findings summary has a comparison between cow and small ruminant (i.e. sheep and goats) milk. The comparison is done in terms of kg of CO2 equivalent emissions per kg of milk protein produced. The conversion from milk to ...


1

Vegan cheese has the lowest carbon footprint First, let's take a look at cheese from dairy milk. Let's go with the lowest estimate and say that cheese has a carbon footprint of 5.13 kg CO2e/kg yield. For cheddar, as sold at retail (63.2 % milk solids), the carbon footprint using the IPCC 2007 factors is 8.60 kg CO2e/kg cheese consumed with a 95 % confidence ...


1

If you see it this way, maybe it'll make sense to you: This could be a solution to make ranchers simply stop deforesting, and grow soy for their beast onto existing deforested land. Of course this means existing deforested land becomes less productive with time. And since no more deforesting, this also means production cannot increase. So this means ...


1

I would say a good sustainable way is to move to Agroforestry. What is Agroforestry? It is a farming technique of mixing trees, shrubs, herbs and plants on the same farming land. It is most probably the firs form of farming that appeared for forest dwelling humanity: if you stay in the same place generation after generation, select the plants that are ...


1

See Mark Shepperd's "Restoration Agriculture" for a good example. Actual polyculture can be aggravating to run. Example: Shepperd advocates rows of chestnuts, alternating with hazelnuts as the main trees, but also runs apples with grapes growing on the lower apple branches and raspberries in rows between the apple rows. Elsewhere he advocates pigs for ...


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